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Publications

This paper focuses on the damage – and the potential for inflicting further damage – to investor confidence arising from legal uncertainties surrounding renewable energy support in some EU member states.

The European Semester is the European Union’s annual cycle of economic policy guidance and oversight.

Nord Stream 2 is criticised on grounds that it undermines the functioning of the European gas market and makes European gas consumers worse off.

The disruption caused by the recent Baumgarten incident is a timely reminder that security of gas supply goes beyond dependence on particular suppliers and that infrastructure matters.

In late December 2016 and early 2017, South Eastern Europe experienced an extended cold spell lasting almost six weeks and triggering an electricity ‘crisis’, which seriously affected EU member states as well as Energy Community countries, notably Bulgaria, Romania, Greece and FYR of Macedonia.

The clean energy transition – necessitated by the Paris Agreement and implemented in the EU through the Energy Union strategy – is changing the industrial landscape in Europe. Viewed through the lens of competitiveness, this transition brings about threats as well as opportunities.